2.2.1. Hinabts

Hinabts is one general category of distinctive Nenets song, a kind of fundamental for classification of the song types, as proposed by Kupriyanova (1965, 21). Lehtisalo's explanation for the word is simply that of a song type derived from the verb hinótsí 'to sing (a Nenets song)' (1956, 187).

By hinabts is sometimes referred to a short song-improvisation (of a personal character), sometimes as a longer narrative song (of autobiographical, personal or other, non-authored epic type). Part of the conceptual confusion may be explained through regional differences in the use of the word. The Western Nenets use a dialectal form hints or hinàts to denote a short improvisatory song comparable to the syo song type (cf. Pushkarëva 1988) and the Eastern to a long narrative, reminiscent of yárabts (cf. Lehtisalo's (1947) text transcriptions of hinabtses). However, there are also longer and more narrative hintses among the Western Nenets too.

Thus, the main conceptual difference is, that in the West the hints means eyther a personal song or narrative song (which may also be of personal and autobiographical nature), in the East (from the tundra of Bol'shaya Zemlya) the hinabts means mainly a longer narrative song, reminiscent of yárabts.

An example of a narrative hinabts (hinàts) of the Western Nenets is a story of a boy, an elder brother, who was reluctant to have the wife that his father was about to get him, but after all wanted to have the wives his father arranged for his younger brother.

Example 4. (155Kb, 15 sec.) Hinabts.
Performed by Paraskov'ya Maryuyeva (née Taibaryey) in Nel'min-Nos, Malaya Zemlya, 1994.
Recording by J. Niemi. Transcription of the text and translation into Russian by Anastasia Lapsui.
Further transcription, translation into English and transcription of the singing by J. Niemi.

nyisyawey masy(e)nyow(à) ngey,                     My father says:
Toholyaryeyhatey(yà),                               - From the family of the Toholya
nyuw nyelyownggudam(à) ngey, (ey-ya),
           I want to take a wife for my son.
many taryowm madàm(àn),                             I replied him like this:
Toholyaheybyidey(yà) ngey, (hey-ya),                   - Your precious Toholyas
tangotow(àn) siretow(àng),                             all the summer, all the winter
kalyaryim(àm) ber(e)tyow(à) ngey (ng, ey-yà),           eat the same single fish (= they are not wealthy)
yenzy(à)ryinowkiyey(yà),                               And she may be a red-face,
tenz(à)yadowkiyey(ya) ngey ng (I),                     or a pale-face? (= not very pretty)
nyisyawey(yà) masy(e)nyow(à),                     My father says:
pi(dà)r(à) nyàbatey har(à)wow(à),                     If you don't want to (have this wife),
nyuw nyudyow nyuwey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),               my younger son
nyu nyelyownggud(à)m(à),                                my son I'll have married.
nyisyawey(yà) hayanyow(à),                               My father went off,
pido nyahar(à)ngesyey(yà) ngey ng (hey-yà),           The three of them (went off) (= father, mother, younger brother)
nyaharkawow yalyow(àn),                                For the whole three days
singgaryodow" yanggow ngey (ey-yà),                    there was nothing heard of them.
nyahar(à)" ngesowngganow(à),                    At the end of the third day
syenzy(à) yaly(à)nyow dongow(à) ngey (ey-yà),        the sound of jingles was heard (= the bells in a sledge)
Toholyitey papow(à),                                       The sister of the Toholya-brothers,
nye ham(àn) taryeywiyey(ye) ngey (ey-ya),                    this girl they brought (with them).
nye syadowmiyey(yà),                                       A pretty-faced woman,
nye myiryeymiyey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                    a pretty-figured woman.
nyisyawey masy(e)nyow(à),                                 Our father says:
yewànzadowkowey(yà),                                       - My youngest son
myud(à)rey(yà) ngedasyey(yà) ngey ng (ey-yà),              took off the harnesses from the reyndeers of the sledges of the wife.
nyaw papowkowey(yà),                                       My youngest brother
myud(à) ngedeynganyow(à) ngey, (ey-yà),                    gathered all the sledges.
ngob yahandyow yasey(yà),                                And not a single harness-decoration
yan nyi haw(à)row(à) ngey, (e),                                did he drop to the ground (= a good sign for the couple)
myat(àn) tyuwowkiyey(yà),                                  The newly married were taken to the hut.
manya" ngam(àn)deyyowey(yà),                                 I, pushing them aside,
syidya sawow nyandey(yà),                                       sat between them.
pond(à) ngam(àn)deyyowey(yà) ngey, (ey-yà),                     Sat with force.
many daryowm madàm,                                       I said like this (to my younger brother):
pydar(à) meb(à)tsowkeney(yà),                               - You have still time,
nganyim(à) meb(à)tsowkeney(yà) ngey, (ey-yà),                 marry next time.
nyisyawey(yà) masy(e)nyow(à),                                  Our father says:
kurkarey mengam(àn)dow(à),                                       - Don't worry,
yewànzadowkowey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                                 my youngest son,
pydar(à) ye"emeynyandey(yà),                                       for you
nganyim(àng)' goteyngawow(à) ngey (ey-yà),                    we set off once again.
nyan(à) nyengeym memey(mà),                                  And I took my brother's wife.
nyisyawey hayanyow(à),                                       Our father prepared again
anyi ngodey ka(i)yow(à) ngey (ey-yà),                              to the bridal journey.
nyisyawey(yà) masy(e)nyow(à),                                  Our father says:
Tusy(i)dareyhatey(yà)",                                       - From the family of the Tusyda
nyem(àn) tàteyngawow(à)" ngey (ey-yà),                            we bring a daughter-in-law.
anyi" ngodey(yà) ka(i)yow(à),                                       They set off again.
nyaharkawow yalyow(à),                                       For the whole three days
singgaryodow yanggow(à) ngey (ey-yà),                          there was nothing heard of them.
nyahar(à)" ngesowngganow(à),                                 At the end of the third day,
yalya ngesowngganow(à),                                       towards the evening
syenzyi yaly(à)nyow dongow(à) ngey (ey-yà),                    the sound of jingles was heard,
nganyi(n)' daryeywiyey(yà),                                       the wedding sledges are approaching.
nyi(ng)' gaman daryeywiyey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                    They brought a bride.
Tusy(à)dyite(i) pa... pow(à),                                       The sister of the Tusyda-brothers
nye syadowmiyey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                              a pretty-faced woman,
nye myireymeyey(yà),                                       a pretty-figured woman.
nyaw papowkowey(yà),                                       My youngest brother
myud(à)m ngedeyanyow(à) ngey (ey-yà),                    took off the harnesses from the reyndeers of the sledges of the wife.
myat(àn)' tyuwowkiyey(yà),                              The newly married were taken to the hut.
nganyi' ngam(àn)deyyowey(ya),                               Again, pushing them aside,
syidya sawow nyaney(yà),                                       between them
pond(à) ngamdeyyowey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                       I sat.
many daryowm madàm,                                       I said (to my younger brother):
pidar(à) meb(à)tsyowkeney(yà),                                       - You have time all right,
nganyim(à)' meb(à)tsyowkeney(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                    marry next time.
many(à) meryeyngguwey(yà),                                       I'll take her,
Dusy(i)dyitey papow(à) ngey (ey-yà),                             the sister of the Tusyda-brothers.
nyisyawey masy(e)nyow(à),                                       Our father says:
yewànzadowkowey(yà),                                       - My youngest son,
hurkarey mengam(àn)dow(à) ngey (ey-yà),                    don't worry.
nganyim(àn)' gob(à)tsowkewow(à)... ng kewow(à)          We take off to search once again.
nganyi(n)' ganyeynyimey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                    They set off once again.
wàr(à)" lyam(àn)sowryeyey(yà),                               This time they headed to
nye(ng)' gam(àn) meb(à)tsowkewow(à) ngey (ey-yà),              a woman dressed in rugs.
heb(à)nyandowngodey(yà),                                       They went.
nyisyawey donganyow(àng),                                       Father returned.
kartyi(n) syidyowryisyey(yà),                                       The both of them returned,
nyebyawey nyisyawey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                            mother with father.
tob(à)nandowngodey(yà),                                       Only they returned.
nyaw papowkowey(yà),                                       My youngest brother,
nyaw(à) hayowiyey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                          brother stayed.
tas(à)hawow pongey(yàn),                                       For the whole year
singgaryodow yanggow(à),                                       there was nothing heard of him,
nyan(à) papowkoney(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                               from the brother.
tas(à) po(n) tewasyey(yà),                                       After a year
syenz(i)" yaly(à)nyow songow(à)" ngey (ey-yà),              the sound of jingles was heard,
nyaw papowkowey(yà),                                       My youngest brother
Yabtongetow papowm(à),                                       along with Yabtonge-brothers'
nye(ng)' gam daryeywiyey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                     sister, returned.
nye syadowmiyey(yà),                                       A pretty-faced woman,
nye myiryeymiyey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                          a pretty-figured woman.
maly(à) nyusoweyey(yà),                                       They came with a baby,
yebts(à) hàreyyangow(à) ngey (ey-yà),                     the baby's cradle in the front. (= to be surely seen)
nye hameynyiwey(yà),                                       The brother's wife had arrived.
syidya lem(àn)sowredow(à),                                 With worn-torn boots
syidya sawow ngedow(à) ngey (ey-yà),                    in two pretty feet,
tyusy(à)hateyrahow(à),                                       pretty like polished.
many(à) daryow madàm(à) ngey (ey-yà),                    I said like this:
nyaw papowkowey(yà),                                   - My youngest brother,
menggudanowkerey(yà) ngey (ey-yà),                    I have to give up,
tarsyi nyutey nyebyow(à) ngey (ey-yà),                    she is the mother of your child.
nyaw papowkowey(yà),                                  My youngest brother
hu nyidyow wetow(à) ngey.                                  didn't much reply to these words.

Gomon suggests, that hinabts refers to a lyric song having, however, a larger meaning at the same time. According to her, the lyric hinabts is a modern, transitional song type, that preserves some stylistic devices of more traditional epic songs. Consequently, she thinks that the epic songs have (or rather: have had) a dominating position in the functional whole of the Nenets traditional song system. (cf. Gomon 1980, 206) Therefore hinabts sometimes represent a kind of "modern epic", with new themes and mixed performance practices. This is reflected in the need of a teltanggoda, who is sometimes desired, sometimes not. Pushkarëva, for example, reports of hinabtses of the Eastern Nenets performed with a teltanggoda (Pushkarëva 1992). The word hinabts functions also as a component in compound concepts, through which the type of hinabts can be described more specifically. Thus, there may be ngedalyo"ma hinabts 'song of the (hunting) travel'; tyunya hinabts 'wedding song' or man' yile'man hinabts 'song about my life' (cf. Bogdanov 1988)